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Comprehensive School Reform / K-12 Meta-Analysis (Borman)

Which comprehensive school reform programs have been proven to help elementary and secondary students achieve? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in elementary and secondary schools. Comprehensive school reform models are programs used schoolwide to improve student achievement. They typically include the following elements:

  • Innovative approaches to instruction and curriculum used in many subjects throughout the school
  • Extensive, ongoing professional development, and coaches or facilitators in the building to help manage the reform process
  • Measurable goals and benchmarks for student achievement
  • Emphasis on parent and community involvement

CSR models are developed and supported by national organizations, mostly nonprofits, that provide professional development, materials, and support to networks of schools.

Full Report
Borman, G., Hewes G., Overman, L., & Brown, S. (2003, Summer). Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 73, 2, 125-230.


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Full Report  (PDF, 9.56 MB)
Educator's Summary  (PDF, 223KB)


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