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Reading / Struggling Readers

Full Report pdf (2 MB) || Educator's Summary pdf (464 KB) || Educator's Guide pdf (584 KB)

Limited Evidence Programs

Program Ratings

Limited Evidence of Effectiveness: Strong Evidence of Modest Effects

Rating Program Type Description Contact / Website
limited evidence

Jostens/ Compass Learning


Provides an extensive set of assessments which place students according to their current levels of performance and then gives students exercises designed primarily to fill in gaps in their skills.

Website: www.compasslearning.com
Limited Evidence of Effectiveness: Weak Evidence with Notable Effects
Rating Program Type Description Contact / Website
limited evidence Contextually-Based Vocabulary Instruction CIP A supplementary intervention in which third and fifth graders receive instruction in multiple meanings of vocabulary words. The supplementary instruction takes place twice weekly for 20-30 minutes. E-mail: rnelson8@unl.edu
limited evidence Early Intervention in Reading SGT Focuses on phonemic segmentation and blending, phonics instruction, story reading and re-reading, comprehension, and home reading. In addition to 15-20 minutes of small group teaching, students receive one-to-one or one-to-two tutoring from a paraprofessional 5-10 minutes daily. Website: www.earlyinterventioninreading.com
limited evidence Edmark T- Para A highly-structured one-to-one tutoring program designed to build a 150-word vocabulary in beginning or disabled readers. Complete contact form at: http://hmlt.hmco.com/Contact.php
limited evidence Lexia CAI Consists of various activities that teach phonetic word-attack strategies to promote automaticity in word recognition. Students typically participate in 2 to 4 20-30-minute sessions a week.

E-mail: info@lexialearning.com
Website: www.lexialearning.com

limited evidence Lindamood Phoneme Sequence Program SGT A one-to-one tutoring program with a strong phonics focus that teaches children to notice how their mouths make various sounds and relates these to letters and sound blending.

Website: www.lindamoodbell.com/programs/lips.html

limited evidence PHAST Reading SGT Designed to teach children word identification skills and decoding strategies and to promote their effective use of these strategies. E-mail: ldrp@sickkids.ca

limited evidence Precision Teaching CIP A precision teaching approach designed to help disadvantaged children with mental retardation learn to read.

No contact information currently available.  

limited evidence Proactive Reading TT

Emphasizes phonemic awareness, letter sounds, reading of decodable text, fluency, and comprehension of connected text. The teaching emphasizes rapid instruction, frequent opportunities to respond, positive feedback, and immediate error correction.

E-mail: tkurz@mail.utexas.edu

limited evidence Programmed Tutorial Reading T- Para A program in which paraprofessional tutors are given step-by-step procedures for a series of lessons that children proceed through at their own levels and rates. The curriculum focuses on word attack and comprehension skills. No contact information currently available.
limited evidence Project READ CIP A phonetic approach to beginning reading instruction based on the Orton-Gillingham method, originally designed for tutoring dyslexics. E-mail: languagecircle@projectread.com
Website: www.projectread.com
limited evidence RAILS CIP Provides children in grades K-2 with a second reading period each day to supplement their 60-90 minute reading, and provides teachers with extensive professional development focusing on explicit instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, comprehension, and vocabulary. 
E-mail: RJS15@PSU.EDU
limited evidence Read Naturally SGT A small group supplementary program that focuses on building fluency among low achievers. Students start with a “cold read” of a story and then practice with audiotapes until they reach a fluency target. E-mail: info@readnaturally.com
Website: www.readnaturally.com
limited evidence Read, Write, and Type SGT A computer-assisted instruction program used to create a small group teaching intervention, in which specially trained teachers added to schools’ staffs work with struggling first graders in groups of 3.

E-mail: contact@talkingfingers.com
Website: www.talkingfingers.com

limited evidence Reading Styles CIP An intervention in which children with learning disabilities are assessed on a reading style inventory and then given small group instruction matched to their favored styles. E-mail: readingstyle@nrsi.com
Website: www.nrsi.com
limited evidence Responsive Reading SGT A program in which teachers alternate among children to provide intensive scaffolding at each child’s level. A daily lesson cycle consists of fluency building, assessment, letters and words, supported reading, and supported writing.

E-mail: pmathes@smu.edu

limited evidence Same Age Tutoring CIP A dyadic reading approach in which children reading below grade level are assigned to pairs with normal-progress reading partners.

E-mail: Hilde.Vankeer@ugent.be

limited evidence SHIP IT A program that provides 30 minutes of daily supplemental instruction to struggling readers in groups of 2-3, over a two-year period.  No contact information currently available.
limited evidence TEACH TT

A one-to-one tutoring program that focuses on identifying perceptual deficits (such as delayed acquisition of spatial and temporal orientation) using an instrument called SEARCH and then provides one-to-one tutoring focused not on reading instruction but on neurological skills.

E-mail: info@searchandteach.com
Website: www.searchandteach.com


limited evidence Voyager Passport SGT A commercial small-group program for struggling readers that emphasizes phonics, phonemic awareness, comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency in daily 30-40 minute sessions. Website: www.voyagerlearning.com/passport
limited evidence Wallach and Wallach T-Para An early phonetic approach for struggling first graders. Paraprofessionals use the program a half hour each day throughout first grade.

No contact information currently available.  

TT=One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers; T-Para/Volunteers=One-to-One Tutoring by Paraprofessionals and Volunteers; SGT=Small Group Tutorials; CIP=Classroom Instructional Process Approaches; CIP+T=Classroom Instructional Process Programs with Tutoring; IT=Instructional Technology.

Evidence Rating:

See Review Methods for an explanation of Ratings.

limited evidenceLimited Evidence of Effectiveness: Strong Evidence of Modest Effects

limited evidenceLimited Evidence of Effectiveness: Weak Evidence with Notable Effects


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