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Reading / Struggling Readers

Which elementary reading approaches have been proven to help struggling readers to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on six types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of children having difficulty in learning to read:

  • One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers (TT) such as Reading Recovery, Auditory Discrimination in Depth, Early Steps/Howard Street Tutoring, and Targeted Reading Intervention.
  • One-to-One Tutoring by Paraprofessionals and Volunteers (T-Para/ Volunteers) such as Sound Partners, SMART, and Book Buddies.
  • Small Group Tutorials (SGT) such as Corrective Reading, Quick Reads, Voyager Passport, and PHAST Reading.
  • Classroom Instructional Process Approaches (CIP): Effects for low achievers were reported for programs such as Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition, PALS, Direct Instruction, and Project Read.
  • Classroom Instructional Process Programs with Tutoring (CIP+T): Effects for low achievers were reported for Success for All.
  • Instructional Technology (IT): Effects for low achievers were reported for programs such as Jostens/Compass Learning, Fast ForWord, and Lexia.

Full Report
Slavin, R.E., Lake, C., Davis, S., & Madden, N. (2009, June) Effective programs for struggling readers: A best evidence synthesis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education.

Additional source:
Slavin, R.E., Lake, C., Davis, S., & Madden, N. Effective programs for struggling readers: A best evidence synthesis. Educational Research Review (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.07.002

 


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Links

Full Report  (PDF, 2 MB)
Educator's Summary  (PDF, 464 KB)
Educator's Guide  (PDF, 584 KB)

 

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