Full Report (2.2 MB) || Educator's Summary (399 KB)
Overall, 80 experimental-control comparisons met the inclusion criteria, of which 25 used random assignment to treatments. Effect sizes (proportion of a standard deviation) were averaged across studies, weighting by sample size.
Reading Curricula (Curr). Studies of reading curricula found minimal effects of using particular textbooks. Mean weighted effect size across 16 studies: +0.06.
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). Studies of CAI also found minimal effects. Mean weighted effect size across 31 studies: +0.06.
Instructional Process Programs (IP). Studies of programs that provide extensive professional development to help teachers use well-specified teaching methods had relatively positive effects overall. Mean weighted effect size across 33 studies: +0.21. Particularly positive effects were found for cooperative learning (ES=+0.21 in 10 studies).